In planning for an effective reading and comprehension lesson, the teacher should consider the following factors:
i. the planning stage;
At the planning stage, the teacher should think about:
a. The purpose (why the lesson)- is it for enjoyment or for information or what?
b. The selection of the text or book to be read. In doing this, the teacher must consider the background knowledge of the reader(s), the organization of the text, the appropriateness of the text, and the difficulty level of the vocabulary in the text.
c. What the readers are supposed to gain from the reading experience.
ii. The implementation stage
The implementation stage can be grouped into three phases: pre-reading phase, during reading or while-reading phase and post reading phase.
PRE-READING PHASE: this phase involves both the prediction activity and vocabulary work.
Prediction activity: Talking about title of the text ; brainstorming what the passage is about, based on the title. Talking about pictures in the text (if any) Asking of pupils to set a hypothesis; what would happen in the text. This is normally done to activate the background/previous knowledge of the students relating to the new text to be read.
Vocabulary work: Treat a few vocabularies from the passage on flash card or word card (nb. U can also think of other innovative ways to treat the key words) Teach the correct pronunciation of some key words Involve the students in determining the meaning of the words as used in the context of the passage/text. That is to say words should not be treated in isolation. Appropriate situations should be used to teaching the meaning of key words. For example, role-play, demonstration, simple explanation, and the use of concrete or real objects. For learning to occur and to enable the students to learn the key words, the new information should be integrated with what the students already know.
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DURING READING PHASE (WHILE-READING PHASE): Activities and/or strategies used at the phase include:
Model reading by either a teacher or a good reader. Asking of while-reading questions (sample questions) to guide the pupils. Allowing the pupils to read silently and evaluating or testing their hypotheses or predictions Short break or pause to discuss answers as well as evaluation of predictions Eliciting responses from pupils instead of teaching them the answers to the questions The teacher should ask pupils more demanding and inferential questions on the text.
POST-READING PHASE: some techniques and strategies that are used at this phase include: Application: Pupils are to apply text read to real life situation. Summary of the information Retelling of the story Role-play Dramatizing the Writing other version of the story Marking of pupil’s work to provide feedback Remedial work for slow learners